, Historians emphasize the strength of the ambition that took Napoleon from an obscure village to command of most of Europe.  Nevertheless, while most of the hereditary lands remained a part of the Habsburg realm, France received Carinthia, Carniola, and the Adriatic ports, while Galicia was given to the Poles and the Salzburg area of the Tyrol went to the Bavarians. became important under the First French Republic. John Dunne, "Recent Napoleonic Historiography: 'Poor Relation' Makes Good?". Joséphine Bonaparte (French: [ʒozefin bɔnapaʁt], born Marie Josèphe Rose Tascher de La Pagerie; 23 June 1763 – 29 May 1814) was the Empress consort of the French as the first wife of Emperor Napoleon I.She is widely known as Joséphine de Beauharnais (French: [də boaʁnɛ]), as she was called after her divorce from Napoleon. He rapidly rose through the ranks of the military, seizing the new opportunities presented by the Revolution and becoming a general at age 24. Much has been made of Napoleon's height, and legends claim that he was unusually short, giving rise to the term "Napoleon complex," an inferiority complex sometimes associated with people of short stature. On June 16, 1815, Napoleon led French troops into Belgium and defeated the Prussians; two days later he was defeated by the British, reinforced by Prussian fighters, at the Battle of Waterloo. The highlight of the conflict became the brutal guerrilla warfare that engulfed much of the Spanish countryside. After Napoleon’s abdication from power in 1815, fearing a repeat of his earlier return from exile on Elba, the British government sent him to the remote island of St. Helena in the southern Atlantic. , Napoleon Crossing the Alps, romantic version by Jacques-Louis David in 1805, Bonaparte Crossing the Alps, realist version by Paul Delaroche in 1848, Napoleon was responsible for spreading the values of the French Revolution to other countries, especially in legal reform. Biography: Where did Napoleon grow up? He never returned to Spain after the 1808 campaign. Empress Joséphine had still not given birth to a child from Napoleon, who became worried about the future of his empire following his death. He stated later in life:[when?] People from different walks of life and areas of France, particularly Napoleonic veterans, drew on the Napoleonic legacy and its connections with the ideals of the 1789 Revolution. Napoleon stood about 5 feet and 7 inches tall, making him slightly taller than the average Frenchman of his time. After doing so he was appointed assessor of the judicial district of Ajaccio in 1771, a plush job that eventually enabled him to enroll his two sons, Joseph and Napoleon, in France's College d'Autun. , Napoleon, expecting to win the war, delayed too long and lost this opportunity; by December the Allies had withdrawn the offer.  He may have had further unacknowledged illegitimate offspring as well, such as Eugen Megerle von Mühlfeld by Emilie Victoria Kraus and Hélène Napoleone Bonaparte (1816–1907) by Albine de Montholon. On 13 March, the powers at the Congress of Vienna declared Napoleon an outlaw.  The code was also used as a model in many parts of Latin America. Upon graduating in September 1785, Bonaparte was commissioned a second lieutenant in La Fère artillery regiment.  On 8 February 1809, the advocates for war finally succeeded when the Imperial Government secretly decided on another confrontation against the French. Look at Caesar; he fought the first like the last". Bonaparte y prend part et se fait remarquer en 1793 lors du siège de Toulon contre les Anglais. , The Napoleonic code was adopted throughout much of Continental Europe, though only in the lands he conquered, and remained in force after Napoleon's defeat. Napoleon's physician, François Carlo Antommarchi, led the autopsy, which found the cause of death to be stomach cancer. It is more likely that he was 1.57 m (5 ft 2 in), the height he was measured at on St. Helena (a British island), since he would have most likely been measured with an English yardstick rather than a yardstick of the Old French Regime. Napoleon was a great military leader and the emperor of France, after the French Revolution. When Napoleon heard that Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive, he fled to Rochefort, considering an escape to the United States. He would later be known as Napoleon II, with the title of King of Rome.  Although Archduke Charles warned that the Austrians were not ready for another showdown with Napoleon, a stance that landed him in the so-called "peace party", he did not want to see the army demobilized either.  French scholar Jean Tulard provided an influential account of his image as a saviour. In their attempts to represent the emperor as a figure of national unity, proponents and detractors of the Third Republic used the legend as a vehicle for exploring anxieties about gender and fears about the processes of democratization that accompanied this new era of mass politics and culture.  In 1806, the Fourth Coalition took up arms against him because Prussia became worried about French continental expansion. He liberalized property laws, ended seigneurial dues, abolished the guild of merchants and craftsmen to facilitate entrepreneurship, legalized divorce, closed the Jewish ghettos and made Jews equal to everyone else. , In July 1793, Bonaparte published a pro-republican pamphlet entitled Le souper de Beaucaire (Supper at Beaucaire) which gained him the support of Augustin Robespierre, younger brother of the Revolutionary leader Maximilien Robespierre. But his military campaign proved disastrous: On August 1, 1798, Admiral Horatio Nelson's fleet decimated Napoleon’s forces in the Battle of the Nile.  The force of his personality neutralized material difficulties as his soldiers fought with the confidence that with Napoleon in charge they would surely win. Napoleon’s ability to use weapons, technology, and battle tactics matched no other. France and Austria agreed to an armistice immediately and the Treaty of Pressburg followed shortly after on 26 December.  A major strain on the relationship between the two nations became the regular violations of the Continental System by the Russians, which led Napoleon to threaten Alexander with serious consequences if he formed an alliance with Britain. , Napoleon and his commitment to the French Revolution thus came into conflict with Paoli, who had decided to sabotage the Corsican contribution to the Expédition de Sardaigne, by preventing a French assault on the Sardinian island of La Maddalena. His description of Napoleon in the months before his death led Sten Forshufvud in a 1961 paper in Nature to put forward other causes for his death, including deliberate arsenic poisoning.  In his youth, his name was also spelled as Nabulione, Nabulio, Napolionne, and Napulione. Around the time of Napoleon's birth, Corsica's occupation by the French had drawn considerable local resistance. During his presidency, he sold oil to Cuba and resisted efforts to stop narcotic trafficking in Colombia, and subsequently strained relations with the United States. In early November Napoleon got concerned about loss of control back in France after the Malet coup of 1812. harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFDwyer2008 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFSicker2001 (, sfn error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFRoberts2014 (, Cullen 2008, p. 161, and Hindmarsh et al. Upon learning the whereabouts of the Prussian army, the French swung westwards and crossed the Saale with overwhelming force. harvnb error: multiple targets (3×): CITEREFRoberts2014 (. Mark, Bryant, "Broadsides against Boney.". He sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States, and he attempted to restore slavery to the French Caribbean colonies.  For the French, this spectacular victory on land was soured by the decisive victory that the Royal Navy attained at the Battle of Trafalgar on 21 October. , While in Egypt, Bonaparte stayed informed of European affairs. If he could not use his favourite envelopment strategy, he would take up the central position and attack two co-operating forces at their hinge, swing round to fight one until it fled, then turn to face the other. War fever in Berlin rose steadily throughout the summer of 1806. Realizing that his position was untenable, he abdicated on 22 June in favour of his son. , A keen observer of Bonaparte's rise to absolute power, Madame de Rémusat, explains that "men worn out by the turmoil of the Revolution […] looked for the domination of an able ruler" and that "people believed quite sincerely that Bonaparte, whether as consul or emperor, would exert his authority and save [them] from the perils of anarchy. His power was confirmed by the new "Constitution of the Year VIII", originally devised by Sieyès to give Napoleon a minor role, but rewritten by Napoleon, and accepted by direct popular vote (3,000,000 in favour, 1,567 opposed). Er war der zweite Sohn von Carlo Buonaparte und Letizia Ramolino, die gemeinsam 13 Kinder hatten, von denen jedoch nur acht die frühen Kindheitsjahre überlebten. Facing a potential invasion from his continental enemies, he decided to strike first and turned his army's sights from the English Channel to the Rhine. Napoleon's forces fought two Coalition armies, commanded by the British Duke of Wellington and the Prussian Prince Blücher, at the Battle of Waterloo on 18 June 1815. That meant that France could retain control of Belgium, Savoy and the Rhineland (the west bank of the Rhine River), while giving up control of all the rest, including all of Spain and the Netherlands, and most of Italy and Germany. But after Paoli was forced to flee the island, Carlo switched his allegiance to the French. This propelled Napoleon to take the reins as the head of the family. Napoleon's ambition and public approval inspired him to go further, and he became the first Emperor of the French in 1804. Later, after the questions were answered in a satisfactory way according to the Emperor, a "great Sanhedrin" was brought together to transform the answers into decisions that would form the basis of the future status of the Jews in France and the rest of the empire Napoleon was building.  German strategist and field marshal Alfred von Schlieffen concluded that "Bonaparte did not annihilate his enemy but eliminated him and rendered him harmless" while "[attaining] the object of the campaign: the conquest of North Italy". , From 1796 to 2020 inclusive, at least 95 ships associated with the name of the Emperor of the French were identified as an object of intangible heritage. France then forced the defeated nations of the Fourth Coalition to sign the Treaties of Tilsit in July 1807, bringing an uneasy peace to the continent. Sa sympathie pour la cause des Jacobins lui vaut un court séjour en prison à la … All of these successes helped make Napoleon the military's brightest star. A series of artillery barrages and cavalry charges decimated the Austrian army, which fled over the Bormida River back to Alessandria, leaving behind 14,000 casualties. , Napoleon and Marie Louise remained married until his death, though she did not join him in exile on Elba and thereafter never saw her husband again.  The Treaty of Leoben, followed by the more comprehensive Treaty of Campo Formio, gave France control of most of northern Italy and the Low Countries, and a secret clause promised the Republic of Venice to Austria. Napoleon I - Napoleon I - The Directory: Bonaparte was still in Paris in October 1795 when the National Convention, on the eve of its dispersal, submitted the new constitution of the year III of the First Republic to a referendum, together with decrees according to which two-thirds of the members of the National Convention were to be reelected to the new legislative assemblies. Napoleon Bonaparte was born on 15 August 1769 in Corsica into a gentry family. Napoleon was born on the island of Corsica into an important Corsican family on August 15, 1769. , Napoleon was moved to Longwood House on Saint Helena in December 1815; it had fallen into disrepair, and the location was damp, windswept and unhealthy. Joseph Farington, who observed Napoleon personally in 1802, commented that "Samuel Rogers stood a little way from me and ... seemed to be disappointed in the look of [Napoleon's] countenance [face] and said it was that of a little Italian." An examiner observed that Napoleon "has always been distinguished for his application in mathematics. Paoli had no sympathy for Napoleon however as he deemed his father a traitor for having deserted his cause for Corsican Independence. The propagandistic rhetoric changed in relation to events and to the atmosphere of Napoleon's reign, focusing first on his role as a general in the army and identification as a soldier, and moving to his role as emperor and a civil leader. Austria could not count on Russian support because the latter was at war with Britain, Sweden, and the Ottoman Empire in 1809. He drew together an alliance with director Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès, his brother Lucien, speaker of the Council of Five Hundred Roger Ducos, director Joseph Fouché, and Talleyrand, and they overthrew the Directory by a coup d'état on 9 November 1799 ("the 18th Brumaire" according to the revolutionary calendar), closing down the Council of Five Hundred. , Before going to Iberia, Napoleon decided to address several lingering issues with the Russians.  He realigned the axis of his army and marched his soldiers towards the town of Eckmühl. Historian David Chandler wrote of the Prussian forces: "Never has the morale of any army been more completely shattered". In May, he transferred with a scholarship to a military academy at Brienne-le-Château. He also negotiated a European peace, which lasted just three years before the start of the Napoleonic Wars. On the first day, Charles disposed of 110,000 soldiers against only 31,000 commanded by Napoleon. He was awarded the title of the Duke of Reichstadt in 1818 and died of tuberculosis aged 21, with no children.. Napoleon's noble, moderately affluent background afforded him greater opportunities to study than were available to a typical Corsican of the time.  Her name would also be his final word on his deathbed in 1821. Artefacts were brought to the Musée du Louvre for a grand central museum; his example would later serve as inspiration for more notorious imitators. The young man still was a fervent Corsican nationalist during this period and asked for leave to join his mentor Pasquale Paoli, when the latter was allowed to return to Corsica by the National Assembly. Prussia's humiliating treatment at Tilsit caused a deep and bitter antagonism which festered as the Napoleonic era progressed.  Napoleon synthesized the best academic elements from the Ancien Régime, The Enlightenment, and the Revolution, with the aim of establishing a stable, well-educated and prosperous society.  His broad powers were spelled out in the new constitution: Article 1.  He was examined by the famed scientist Pierre-Simon Laplace.. , The Russians avoided Napoleon's objective of a decisive engagement and instead retreated deeper into Russia. Napoleon became "first consul" for ten years, with two consuls appointed by him who had consultative voices only. , The battle was characterized by a vicious back-and-forth struggle for the two villages of Aspern and Essling, the focal points of the French bridgehead. They also took the precaution of sending a garrison of soldiers to uninhabited Ascension Island, which lay between St. Helena and Europe. The Napoleonic Wars were a series of European wars lasting from 1803 to Napoleon’s second abdication of power in 1815. Over 4000 British troops were lost in a bungled campaign, and the rest withdrew in December 1809. , The peace with Britain proved to be uneasy and controversial. From Ormea, they headed west to outflank the Austro-Sardinian positions around Saorge.  He ignored repeated advice against an invasion of the Russian heartland and prepared for an offensive campaign; on 24 June 1812 the invasion commenced. In 1785, while Napoleon was at the academy, his father died of stomach cancer. Bonaparte's brother, Joseph, led the complex negotiations in Lunéville and reported that Austria, emboldened by British support, would not acknowledge the new territory that France had acquired. , Separated from his wife and son, who had returned to Austria, cut off from the allowance guaranteed to him by the Treaty of Fontainebleau, and aware of rumours he was about to be banished to a remote island in the Atlantic Ocean, Napoleon escaped from Elba in the brig Inconstant on 26 February 1815 with 700 men. Napoleon finished off the battle with a concentrated central thrust that punctured a hole in the Austrian army and forced Charles to retreat. , Some contemporaries alleged that Bonaparte was put under house arrest at Nice for his association with the Robespierres following their fall in the Thermidorian Reaction in July 1794, but Napoleon's secretary Bourrienne disputed the allegation in his memoirs. In 1809, under Napoleon's orders, Pope Pius VII was placed under arrest in Italy, and in 1812 the prisoner Pontiff was transferred to France, being held in the Palace of Fontainebleau.  Worried by the democratic forces unleashed by the Revolution, but unwilling to ignore them entirely, Napoleon resorted to regular electoral consultations with the French people on his road to imperial power. , En route to Egypt, Bonaparte reached Malta on 9 June 1798, then controlled by the Knights Hospitaller. ", Seeking national reconciliation between revolutionaries and Catholics, the Concordat of 1801 was signed on 15 July 1801 between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII. The French Directory eventually gave him command of the Army of Italy after he suppressed the 13 Vendémiaire revolt against the government by royalist insurgents. His exile did not last long, as he watched France stumbled forward without him. Antommarchi did not sign the official report. Emperor Military Leader . Harvard University Press. Napoleon Bonaparte, cunoscut și sub numele de Napoleon I, a fost un lider militar francez care a cucerit cea mai mare parte a Europei la începutul secolului al XIX-lea. He reorganized France itself to supply the men and money needed for wars. Additionally, with the Treaty of Amiens in 1802, the war-weary British agreed to peace with the French (although the peace would only last for a year). However, despite pressure from leaders of a number of Christian communities to refrain from granting Jews emancipation, within one year of the issue of the new restrictions, they were once again lifted in response to the appeal of Jews from all over France. , On completion of his studies at Brienne in 1784, Napoleon was admitted to the École Militaire in Paris. , He adopted a plan to capture a hill where republican guns could dominate the city's harbour and force the British to evacuate. Napoleon's rule greatly aided adoption of the new standard not only across France but also across the French sphere of influence. The terms of the code are the main basis for many other countries’ civil codes throughout Europe and North America. ", Critics argue Napoleon's true legacy must reflect the loss of status for France and needless deaths brought by his rule: historian Victor Davis Hanson writes, "After all, the military record is unquestioned—17 years of wars, perhaps six million Europeans dead, France bankrupt, her overseas colonies lost. Biography of Napoleon Bonaparte.  Napoleon was regarded by the influential military theorist Carl von Clausewitz as a genius in the operational art of war, and historians rank him as a great military commander. , In an attempt to gain increased support from Polish nationalists and patriots, Napoleon termed the war the Second Polish War—the First Polish War had been the Bar Confederation uprising by Polish nobles against Russia in 1768. The British wanted Napoleon permanently removed, and they prevailed, but Napoleon adamantly refused.. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim surrendered after token resistance, and Bonaparte captured an important naval base with the loss of only three men. To them he added a rational and efficient local administration, an end to rural banditry, the encouragement of science and the arts, the abolition of feudalism and the greatest codification of laws since the fall of the Roman Empire".  While in exile in Saint Helena he is recorded to have said "I know men; and I tell you that Jesus Christ is not a man. His Napoleonic Code remains a model for governments worldwide.  Two days later, he landed on the French mainland at Golfe-Juan and started heading north. , Whereas the plebiscite two years earlier had brought out 1.5 million people to the polls, the new referendum enticed 3.6 million to go and vote (72 percent of all eligible voters). The Allies now had new, harsher terms that included the retreat of France to its 1791 boundaries, which meant the loss of Belgium. It resulted in the collapse of the Grande Armée and inspired a renewed push against Napoleon by his enemies.  Since his death, many towns, streets, ships, and even cartoon characters have been named after him. Napoleon won a series of victories in the Six Days' Campaign, though these were not significant enough to turn the tide. Margaret Bradley, "Scientific education versus military training: the influence of Napoleon Bonaparte on the École Polytechnique". He was a great military leader and rose through the ranks to become a general in the French army at age 25.  The main strategic result from the campaign became the delayed political settlement between the French and the Austrians. However, she seemed to warm up to him over time. Napoleon had seen the massacre of the King's Swiss Guard there three years earlier and realized that artillery would be the key to its defence. In 1803, in part to raise funds for war, France sold its North American Louisiana Territory to the United States for $15 million, a transaction known as the Louisiana Purchase. At Rivoli, the Austrians lost up to 14,000 men while the French lost about 5,000. The French people name, and the Senate proclaims Napoleon-Bonaparte First Consul for Life. , Despite these successes, the numbers continued to mount against Napoleon, and the French army was pinned down by a force twice its size and lost at the Battle of Leipzig.  Napoleon assured the Directory that "as soon as he had conquered Egypt, he will establish relations with the Indian princes and, together with them, attack the English in their possessions". His Egyptian expedition included a group of 167 scientists, with mathematicians, naturalists, chemists, and geodesists among them. , In 1808, Napoleon and Tsar Alexander met at the Congress of Erfurt to preserve the Russo-French alliance. However, the presence of the Emperor in Paris was an embarrassment, especially as the … His reforms proved popular: In 1802 he was elected consul for life, and two years later he was proclaimed emperor of France. , Napoleon institutionalized plunder of conquered territories: French museums contain art stolen by Napoleon's forces from across Europe. These negotiations resulted in the Treaty of Campo Formio, and Bonaparte returned to Paris in December as a hero. On top of these forces, Napoleon created a cavalry reserve of 22,000 organized into two cuirassier divisions, four mounted dragoon divisions, one division of dismounted dragoons, and one of light cavalry, all supported by 24 artillery pieces. , Marshal Murat led 120,000 troops into Spain. , Meanwhile, the heavy Allied deployment against the French right flank weakened their center on the Pratzen Heights, which was viciously attacked by the IV Corps of Marshal Soult. McConachy rejects the alternative theory that growing reliance on artillery by the French army beginning in 1807 was an outgrowth of the declining quality of the French infantry and, later, France's inferiority in cavalry numbers. In January 1813, Napoleon personally forced the Pope to sign a humiliating "Concordat of Fontainebleau" which was later repudiated by the Pontiff.  From 30 June to the early days of July, the French recrossed the Danube in strength, with more than 180,000 troops marching across the Marchfeld towards the Austrians.  Napoleon surrounded himself with tall bodyguards and was affectionately nicknamed le petit caporal (the little corporal), reflecting his reported camaraderie with his soldiers rather than his height. Napoleon had his own affairs too: during the Egyptian campaign he took Pauline Bellisle Fourès, the wife of a junior officer, as his mistress. Napoleon confined himself for months on end in his damp and wretched habitation of Longwood. ", The stock character of Napoleon is a comically short "petty tyrant" and this has become a cliché in popular culture. The Russians were unwilling to bear the economic consequences of reduced trade and routinely violated the Continental System, enticing Napoleon into another war. [a] Napoleon's parents joined the Corsican resistance and fought against the French to maintain independence, even when Maria was pregnant with him. He left Paris three days later and settled at Josephine's former palace in Malmaison (on the western bank of the Seine about 17 kilometres (11 mi) west of Paris). Venita Datta, "'L'appel Au Soldat': Visions of the Napoleonic Legend in Popular Culture of the Belle Epoque". The Duke was quickly executed after a secret military trial, even though he had not been involved in the plot.  However, the plan unravelled after the British victory at the Battle of Cape Finisterre in July 1805. One of his major objectives became enforcing the Continental System against the British forces. The fall of Vienna provided the French a huge bounty as they captured 100,000 muskets, 500 cannons, and the intact bridges across the Danube. On receipt of intelligence reports on Russia's war preparations, Napoleon expanded his Grande Armée to more than 450,000 men. , Desperate to lure the Allies into battle, Napoleon gave every indication in the days preceding the engagement that the French army was in a pitiful state, even abandoning the dominant Pratzen Heights near the village of Austerlitz. His army walked through snow up to their knees, and nearly 10,000 men and horses froze to death on the night of 8/9 November alone. , In May 1798, Bonaparte was elected a member of the French Academy of Sciences. "Memoirs of Napoleon Bonaparte." [better source needed] Like many Corsicans, Napoleon spoke and read Corsican (as his mother tongue) and Italian (as the official language of Corsica). Napoleon returned to Paris and found that both the legislature and the people had turned against him. Bonaparte was promoted to Commander of the Interior and given command of the Army of Italy. He called her "Joséphine" instead, and she went by this name henceforth. He was married to Marie Antoinette and was executed for treason by guillotine in 1793. , Under Napoleon, a new emphasis towards the destruction, not just outmanoeuvring, of enemy armies emerged. Specifically targeting his civilian audience, Napoleon fostered a relationship with the contemporary art community, taking an active role in commissioning and controlling different forms of art production to suit his propaganda goals. Hugo Chávez served as president of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013. Napoleon Bonaparte was born Napoleon Buonaparte on August 15, 1769, in the Corsican city of Ajaccio. Napoleon approached the regiment alone, dismounted his horse and, when he was within gunshot range, shouted to the soldiers, "Here I am. , Napoleon was routinely bullied by his peers for his accent, birthplace, short stature, mannerisms and inability to speak French quickly. A forced march from Vienna by Marshal Davout and his III Corps plugged the gap left by Napoleon just in time. , One year after the final meeting of the Sanhedrin, on 17 March 1808, Napoleon placed the Jews on probation. The constitution was approved in a rigged plebiscite held the following January, with 99.94 percent officially listed as voting "yes". His basic objective was to destroy the isolated Austrian armies in Southern Germany before their Russian allies could arrive. Napoleon acknowledged one illegitimate son: Charles Léon (1806–1881) by Eléonore Denuelle de La Plaigne.  Austria had been defeated by France twice in recent memory and wanted revenge, so it joined the coalition a few months later. Although France maintained roughly 300,000 troops in Iberia during the Peninsular War, the vast majority were tied down to garrison duty and to intelligence operations. While the ordinary soldiers and regimental officers wanted to fight on, the senior commanders were unwilling to continue. This was in contrast to the complex uniforms with many decorations of his marshals and those around him. Vol. Napoleon's own account was: "The most terrible of all my battles was the one before Moscow. He died on 5 May 1821, after confession, Extreme Unction and Viaticum in the presence of Father Ange Vignali. Ultimately, these acts led to the rise of Maximilien de Robespierre and what became, essentially, the dictatorship of the Committee of Public Safety.
Ferry Ilha Da Armona, Voir Un Caméléon, Monologue Titanic Francais, Rentrée Fac De Droit Bordeaux 2020, Que Faire à Ibiza, Recette Filet De Dinde Light, Nomenclature 10 Lettres, Kensuke Nagai Fifa 21, Poule Padoue Prix, La Fille De Minos Et De Pasiphaé, Emploi Du Temps Cm2 Modifiable, Formation Assistant Juridique Afpa, Plainte Cour Européenne De Justice,